Can you write correct software in a statically typed language?

Epistemic status: Mostly trolling. Mostly.

Attention Conservation Notice: Dispatches from the type system wars.

I’ve been writing Rust recently. There have been some frustrating aspects to it (mostly syntax), but one of the things I’m really enjoying is having the productivity benefits of a good type system again.

The fast feedback loop from the type checker really improves my ability to develop software – it’s almost impossible to write code without making lots of trivial errors, and having an automated system that catches those errors and tells me about them in a detailed, localised, way, really smooths the entire development process, and the focus on modularity and ability to make certain behaviours actually impossible rather than merely discouraged really cuts down on a lot of worries that would otherwise slow me down. It’s something I’ve missed a lot over the last fiveish years of mostly writing in dynamic languages.

But I have a concern…

One of the things I’ve gotten used to in my time in dynamic language land is the correctness benefits. How much of that am I giving up for this productivity boost?

I’m not saying you can’t write correct software in statically typed languages. Of course you can. You can write correct software in anything if you’re prepared to try hard enough (except maybe Malbolge).

Of course you can write bad software in dynamic languages. It’s never going to be hard to write bad software.

But it sure seems harder to write correct software in a statically typed language, doesn’t it?

Writing correct software requires that you get a lot of the project workflow right. All other things being equal, static checks help, but they’re mostly dominated by other far more significant factors: Code review, run time assertions, a focus on user experience, processes, check-lists and, obviously, testing, but hopefully that you should be testing your code is uncontroversial at this point. Not even the static typing advocates really believe they can write correct code with less than 100% coverage, do they?

The problem is that even though we like to pretend that “If It Compiles It Works!” is just a tasteless joke and that nobody actually believes it, people don’t seem to act like they entirely disbelieve it either, and as a result they come to rely on the compiler for things the compiler never really promised to give them.

I think it’s that the type system makes you sloppy. It sits there telling you “Hey I checked your code. LGTM” and even though you know it’s not a substitute for a real code review, it’s still your most common piece of feedback because it happens on every change you make to your code, and over time you start to believe it.

It also tells you that you can fix it later. One of the great productivity benefits of static typing is how that fast feedback loop helps you change your code. I spent almost an hour doing major surgery on this project yesterday with the code in a completely non-compiling state. It would have been hard doing that in a dynamic language, because the feedback when your project isn’t working at all is just too non-local and coarse grained: If nothing works then of course your tests are all going to fail, and they way they fail isn’t going to be that informative.

So given a choice between shipping and putting in place the measures that are required for correctness, static typing says “Oh, don’t worry, it’s probably good enough, and if it’s not you can fix it later”.

Alas, this is a lie. Code that hasn’t been reviewed, tested, and put in front of a user before shipping may be more likely to be correct in a statically typed language, but that still isn’t likely, and static types are a lovely adjunct to but inadequate substitute for dynamic checks (possibly unless you’re writing in something like Idris, which I do still want to try seriously at some point).

You can do all of these things in a statically typed language, and I’m certain responsible developers do, but they all somehow seem less urgent, don’t they? 95% coverage is probably good enough, and it compiles, so it’s probably fine, and the compiler did a pretty good job of checking the obvious so a detailed code review doesn’t matter that much.

And there’s always that subconscious feeling that if these things do turn out to matter you can fix it later.

Unfortunately, that too is a lie. Statically typed code is easy to refactor, but the thing you’re going to need to change later isn’t the code, it’s the process, and the process is made of people. People are surprisingly resistant to change, as we find out every time Twitter shifts something a pixel to the right and eleven billion people complain that Twitter just don’t understand their user base and how dare they move that thing.

You can fix process later, but the will to do that needs to be there, and there’s always the sense that the status quo is probably good enough, especially with the compiler sitting there telling you its sweet lies about how everything is fine.

In contrast, a dynamic language gives you no such illusions. You’re not just operating without a safety net, you’re operating with a Tullock Spike. That fast feedback that the statically typed language gave you about your code, the dynamically typed language will give you about your process: If you care about correctness (and I acknowledge that many people don’t, even among those who chose to write in dynamically typed languages), you feel the pain points in your process fast, and you fix them early while you’re project is still flexible.

And yet, I really enjoy the productivity benefits of static typing, and I’m reluctant to give them up.

I think the thing to do here is probably to just try to carry the correctness lessons of dynamic typing over when writing in statically typed languages. In the same way that learning Haskell can improve your productivity when writing in Python, maybe once you’ve learned Python it’s possible to write correct code in Haskell.

I said I was writing in Rust recently, and that’s true, but it’s actually more complicated than that: It’s a hybrid Ruby/Rust project, so I’ll get to enjoy the benefits (and drawbacks) of both.

This might offer another way to have my cake and eat it too, because it means that I can choose which language to write each part of the code in depending on its function and trade offs. Code that I really need to be correct can go in Ruby, but where I need flexibility and freedom to experiment, I’m still able to write it in a more productive language such as Rust.


People seem to be failing to get the joke, so I’m going to explain it. Apologies if this ruins it for you.

Should you conclude from reading this post that it is impossible to write correct code in a statically typed language? No. And if you concluded that you should, frankly, feel bad about your reasoning skills (even disregarding the fact that I said right at the top of the post that I was trolling).

I did not present any empirical evidence. I didn’t even present a balanced non-empirical picture of the landscape: I cherry-picked a bunch of effects, added a bit of hyperbole, backed it all up with condescension and anecdata, and from there concluded that because these factors existed they must dominate the outcome.

You know who else does that? Every single person arguing that static types are required for correctness, (and every single person arguing that dynamic types are better for productivity, but honestly my impression having spent quite a lot of time on both sides of the language fence is that it’s mostly the static typing people who are picking the fights). I just thought it would be interesting to flip the argument on its head for once.

So, if you found my arguments unconvincing, good. But you should also have found the arguments for why static typing helps correctness or hurts productivity equally unconvincing.

Does static typing help correctness? Does dynamic typing help productivity?

Probably not, no. But the converse is probably not any more true.

The empirical studies on the question are really pretty inconclusive. Partly that’s because we’re rubbish at doing empirical software engineering, but maybe it’s because there really isn’t that much of a difference to observe, or because other differences dominate.

Either way, if you’re going to condescendingly claim that your side is obviously correct and the other side is awful, maybe you should wait until you have some actual evidence backing you up.

And maybe you should stop pretending that the things that we know do help correctness are somehow less necessary in statically typed languages.

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