The Hypothesis API is a bit of a bizarre sleight of hand. It pretends to be very clean and simple, but that’s mostly a distraction to stop you thinking too hard about it. Everything looks easy, so you aren’t surprised when it just works, and you don’t think too hard and realise that what it just did should actually have been impossible.
Take for example this piece of code using the Django integration (this comes straight from the docs):
from hypothesis.strategies import lists, just def generate_with_shops(company): return lists(models(Shop, company=just(company))).map(lambda _: company) company_with_shops_strategy = models(Company).flatmap(generate_with_shops)
We take a strategy that generates a model inserted into the database, then use flatmap to create a strategy for children of that and bind that in. Everything just works neatly and everything will simplify just fine – the list of children can be simplified, both by throwing away children and simplifying individual children, the original element can be simplifies, everything lives in the database, all is good with the world. Examples will be persisted into the Hypothesis example database as normal. Everything works great, no reason to think twice about it.
Except it is completely ridiculous that this works, and it’s certainly unique to Hypothesis. No other Quickcheck has anything like it.
Some of this is just the magic of Hypothesis templating at work. There’s a lot more information available than is present in the end result, and this also explains how you can mutate the value by adding children to it and have simplification still work, etc.
But there’s something that should make you very suspicious going on here: We cannot create the strategy we need to generate the children until we have already performed some side effects (i.e. put some things in the database). What could the template for this possibly be?
The answer to this is quite bad. But it’s quite bad and hidden behind another abstraction layer!
The answer is that we have a type called Morpher. As far as we are concerned for now, a Morpher has one method called “become”. You call my_morpher.become(my_strategy) and you get a value that could have been drawn from my_strategy.
You can think of Morphers as starting out as a reproducible way of getting examples from strategies, but there’s more to it than that, for one very important reason: A Morpher can be simplified and serialized.
This gives us a very easy implementation of flatmap:
def flatmap(self, f): return builds(lambda s, m: m.become(f(s)), self, morphers())
i.e. we generate an element of the strategy, apply f to it to get a new strategy, and then tell the morpher to become an instance of that. Easy!
Easy, that is, except for the fact that it still looks completely impossible, because we’re no closer to understanding how morphers work.
I’m not going to explain how they work in too much detail, because the details are still in flux, but I’ll sketch out how the magic works and if you want the gory details you can check the code.
As it starts out, a Morpher is simple: It contains a random seed for a parameter value and a template value, and become() just draws parameters and templates with those standard seeds and then reifies the result.
This would achieve all of the desired results except for simplification: You can save the seeds and you can now generate.
So how do we simplify? Noting that each time we may have to become a different strategy and that templates are not compatible between strategies.
There is a two part trick to this:
- The template for a Morpher (which is actually the Morpher itself) is secretly mutable (actually quite a lot of Hypothesis template strategies are mutable). When we call become() on a Morpher, the strategy used is stored on the template for later so we have access to it when we want to simplify, as is the template that was produced in the course of the become() call.
- As well as storing a random seed we also store a list of serialized representations of possible templates. These are the representations that would be used when saving in the database. The reason for this is that the Hypothesis database has the following really helpful invariant: Any serialized representation can either be turned into a valid template for the strategy or rejected as invalid. Moreover the representations are quite straightforward, so usually similar strategies will have compatible representations.
- When we wish to become a strategy, we first try our serialized representations in order to see if one of them produces a valid template. If it does, we use that template, otherwise if we reach the end we generate a fresh one using the random seed method mentioned above.
- When we simplify, we try to simplify the last template generated with the last strategy used, and then replace the representation that generated that strategy with the simplified form of it, thus generating a new morpher with the same seed and parameter but a simplified serialized representation.
If you’re reading that thinking that it’s horrifying, you’re not wrong. It’s also quite fragile – there are definitely some corner cases of it that I haven’t quite shaken out yet, and it’s why flatmap is somewhat slower and buggier than things using more normal methods of generation.
But it’s also really powerful, because you can use this technology for things other than flatmap. I originally intended it as a shared implementation between flatmap and the stateful testing, although for various reasons I haven’t got around to rebuilding the stateful testing on top of it yet. It’s also what powers a really new cool new feature I released today (I know I said I wasn’t doing new features, but I couldn’t resist and it only took me an hour), which is essentially a form of do notation for Hypothesis strategies (only more pythonic).
@composite def list_and_sample(draw, elements): values = draw(lists(elements, min_size=1)) redraw = draw(lists(sampled_from(values))) return (values, redraw)
list_and_sample(integers) now gives you a strategy which draws a list of at least one integer, then draws another sample from that list (with replacement)
What this does is give you a magic “draw” function that produces examples from a strategy, and composes these all together into a single strategy built on repeatedly calling that draw function as many times as you like.
This is also black magic, but it’s not novel black magic: It’s just morphers again. We generate an infinite stream of morphers, then map a function over it. draw maintains a counter, and the nth time you call it it gets the nth element from the stream and tell it to become the strategy that you’ve just passed in. There’s a bit more fiddling and details to work out in terms of making everything line up right, but that’s more or less it. We’ve vastly simplified the definition of strategies that you would previously have used an ugly chain of lambdas and flatmaps to build up.
If you want to read more about this feature, I commend you to the documentation. It’s available in the latest release (1.11.0), so have fun playing with it.